Views: 37 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-03-02 Origin: Site
2019 the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), was discovered in 2019 in Wuhan, and was named by WHO in January 12, 2020. Coronavirus is a large virus family, which is known to cause cold, Middle East respiratory syndrome (mers) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other serious diseases. A novel coronavirus is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in human body before.
Since December 2019, surveillance of influenza and related diseases has been continuously carried out in Wuhan City, Hubei Province. A number of cases of viral pneumonia have been found, all of which are diagnosed as viral pneumonia / pulmonary infection.
The common signs of people infected with coronavirus are respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and dyspnea. In more serious cases, infection can lead to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, renal failure, and even death. No novel coronavirus induced disease is currently available. But many symptoms can be treated, so it needs to be treated according to the clinical situation of patients. In addition, supplementary care for infected people may be very effective.
Self protection includes maintaining basic hand and respiratory hygiene, adhering to safe eating habits, and avoiding close contact with anyone who shows symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as coughing and sneezing) as much as possible.
HOW DID WE DISCOVERED?
In December 2019, some medical institutions in Wuhan have seen pneumonia patients of unknown causes. In Wuhan, 27 cases of viral pneumonia were found, all of which were diagnosed as viral pneumonia / pulmonary infection.
As of December 31, 2019, of the 27 cases, 7 were critically ill, the rest were controllable, and 2 cases were expected to be discharged in the near future.
On the morning of December 31, 2019, the expert group of the national health and Health Commission arrived in Wuhan, and the related virus typing test, isolation treatment, terminal disinfection and other works are in progress.
On January 3, 2020, according to the website of Wuhan health and Health Commission, since December 2019, our commission has carried out the monitoring of respiratory diseases and related diseases, and found cases of viral pneumonia with unknown causes. The clinical manifestations of the cases are mainly fever, a few patients have difficulty breathing, and the chest film shows double lung infiltrative lesions. As of 8:00 on January 3, 2020, 44 cases of viral pneumonia with unknown causes were found, including 11 severe cases, and the vital signs of other patients were generally stable.
On the evening of January 5, 2020, Wuhan health and Health Commission reported that as of 8:00 on January 5, Wuhan had reported 59 cases of viral pneumonia with unknown causes, including 7 cases of severe cases.
Novel coronavirus pneumonia novel coronavirus pneumonia was held in Hubei in February 10, 2020. The new crown pneumonia is actually a self limited disease, Zhang Dingyu, deputy secretary and President of the Wuhan golden Yin hospital. Novel coronavirus pneumonia is a high cure rate in our hospital. At present, the number of patients with new crown pneumonia in our hospital has exceeded 1500 cases. Most of the patients, including severe and critical patients, are discharged successfully after various kinds of oxygen therapy, symptomatic treatment and immunoregulation treatment.
WHAT IS THE MAIN SYMPTOM?
People infected with the virus will have symptoms of varying degrees, some with fever or mild cough, some with pneumonia, some with even more serious or even death.
The lethality of the virus is about 2% to 4%, but this is a very early percentage that may change as more information is available. At the same time, this doesn't mean it's not serious, just that people infected with the virus don't have to face the most serious consequences.
WHAT IS THE MAIN ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION?
Novel coronavirus is the main way of transmission and respiratory droplet transmission and contact transmission, aerosol and fecal oral transmission route needs to be further clarified. According to the epidemiological investigation, the cases can be traced to the cases that have close contact with the confirmed cases.
WHAT IS DIRECT PROPAGATION?
It refers to the infection caused by the patient's sneezing, coughing and talking droplets, and the exhaled gas is inhaled directly in short distance.
WHAT IS AEROSOL TRANSMISSION?
It refers to the mixture of droplets in the air to form aerosol, which causes infection after inhalation
WHAT IS CONTACTING TRANSMISSION?
It refers to the droplets deposited on the surface of the object, after touching the contaminated hand, then touching the oral cavity, nasal cavity, eyes and other mucous membranes, leading to infection.
WHO IS EASY TO BE INFECTED?
People of all ages are likely to be infected, mainly adults, the elderly and the frail and sickly seem to be more likely to be infected. There is no evidence that pets such as dogs and cats can be infected.
The novel coronavirus is susceptible to pneumonia in children and pregnant women.
WHAT IS THE EDITION OF DIAGNOSTIC STANDARD?
The sixth edition of diagnostic standard cancels the difference between Hubei Province and other provinces. It can be divided into "suspected cases" and "confirmed cases".
There are two kinds of suspected cases. One is "any one with an epidemiological history and any two with clinical manifestations (fever and / or respiratory symptoms; with the above-mentioned imaging features of pneumonia; normal or reduced total leukocytes and lymphocyte count in the early stage of the disease). The second is "no clear epidemiological history, and in line with the clinical manifestations of three (fever and / or respiratory symptoms; with the above-mentioned image characteristics of pneumonia; early onset of normal or reduced leukocyte count, lymphocyte count decreased).
Novel coronavirus DNA positive novel coronavirus positive samples were detected by real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, or highly sequenced with the known new coronavirus.
WHAT DID WE DO?
On December 30, 2019, the medical administration and medical management office of Wuhan Health Committee issued the emergency notice on the treatment of pneumonia of unknown causes. The notice requires all medical institutions to track and count the treatment situation in time, and report to the superior timely as required.
On the morning of December 31, 2019, the expert group of the national health and Health Commission arrived in Wuhan to carry out relevant inspection and verification. The survey found that most of the cases of pneumonia were operated in South China Seafood City.
On December 31, 2019, Wuhan organized clinical medicine, epidemiology and virology experts from Tongji Hospital, provincial CDC, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Wuhan infectious disease hospital, Wuhan CDC and other units for consultation. The experts analyzed the condition, treatment outcome, epidemiological investigation, preliminary laboratory test and other aspects and concluded that the above cases were viral pneumonia 。 Related virus typing, isolation and treatment, terminal disinfection are in progress.
On January 1, 2020, the South China seafood wholesale market was closed, and disease prevention guidance and environmental health management were further strengthened in Wuhan public places, especially in the agricultural trade market. Third, we should widely publicize disease prevention knowledge and enhance public awareness of self-protection. The fourth is to cooperate with the national and provincial research on etiology. Fifthly, cooperate with the National Health Commission to timely inform the World Health Organization and other epidemic information.
On the evening of January 5, 2020, Wuhan health and Health Commission reported that epidemiological survey showed that some patients were operating households of South China Seafood City (South China seafood wholesale market). Preliminary investigation showed that no clear evidence of human to human transmission was found, and no medical staff infection was found. Influenza, avian influenza, adenovirus, SARS and mers have been eliminated. The work of pathogen identification and etiology tracing is still in progress.
Novel coronavirus was detected in a novel coronavirus in January 7, 2020. The whole genome sequence of the virus was obtained. 15 positive cases were detected by nucleic acid detection method. The virus was isolated from 1 positive samples and the typical coronavirus morphology was observed under electron microscope. The results showed that the virus was positive in 21 cases. The novel coronavirus was initially identified as a pathogen of unknown cause viral pneumonia, the expert group said.
As of 24:00 on January 10, 2020, the detection of pathogenic nucleic acid has been completed. Novel coronavirus infection cases were diagnosed by the national and provincial experts' group, including clinical manifestations, epidemiological history, laboratory test results and so on. 41 cases of pneumonia with new coronavirus infection were initially diagnosed, including 2 discharged patients, 7 severe cases and 1 deaths. All 739 close contacts, including 419 medical staff, have received medical observation and no relevant cases have been found.
Novel coronavirus (WHO) did not recommend any restrictions on the mobility of new coronaviruses in China in January 2020, said Tariq Asharevich, spokesman for the WHO.
On January 12, 2020, experts from the Institute of Virology again collected 70 specimens related to wildlife trafficking shops in the South China seafood market and transferred them to the laboratory for testing.
The novel coronavirus pneumonia was included in the infectious diseases of class B stipulated in the infectious disease prevention act of People's Republic of China in January 20, 2020, and the prevention and control measures of class A infectious diseases were adopted by the national health and Health Commission in 2020. The 1 announcement was issued by the national health and health Committee. The pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus is included in the management of quarantine infectious diseases stipulated in the frontier health and Quarantine Law of the People's Republic of China. What's animal's animal origin novel coronavirus is also likely to be wild animals and what animals are not known,  Zhong Nanshan said.
Novel coronavirus's natural host may also be bats, published online in January 21, 2020 by several research institutes such as the Pasteur Institute of China, Shanghai Academy of Sciences.
The novel coronavirus resource bank  was released in January 22, 2020 by the national genome science data center. Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak in Wuhan was also a potential animal bank, published jointly by Peking University and Guangxi University of Chinese medicine on the same day.
Novel coronavirus was released on January 23, 2020 by Shi Zhengli team of the Wuhan Institute of virus research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, on the bioRxiv preprint platform, Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia recent Discovery, China. In this article, Shi Zhengli's team reported the latest coronavirus found in Wuhan, ncov-2019, which led to the outbreak of the epidemic. The sequence of ncov-2019 is as consistent as 96% with that of a coronavirus in bats. By comparing the seven conserved non structural proteins, we found that ncov-2019 belongs to SARS r-cov. In addition, the receptor of ncov-2019 into cells is ACE2, just like SARS CoV.
Novel coronavirus nucleic acid primers and probe sequences were released in China, and the sharing of services was first released in China in January 24, 2020. The novel coronavirus test kit was tested by the same day. The novel coronavirus was published online on the same day by the lancet. Lancet and Lancet Infectious diseases also launched the topic of "coronavirus", including two original research papers, two commentaries and a society.
WHAT IS THE PROGRAMME FOR THIS NAME?
After the emergence of novel coronavirus pneumonia cases in Wuhan, the outside world has different names for this disease, but they all have the place name of Wuhan (Wuhan). The novel coronavirus, novel coronavirus, which caused the epidemic of pneumonia in Wuhan, was officially named "2019 new coronavirus" (2019-nCoV) in January 12, 2020, without referring to "Wuhan" in January 12, 2020.
Novel coronavirus has been named SARI. In response to the naming of viruses, Maria D. van kerkhove, who's acting head of new infectious diseases and animal infectious diseases, said that who does not have time to discuss the naming of viruses, and will do this later, which is still called 2019 ncov.
WHAT DID WE DO FOR THE PROTECTIONG?
Cancel the traditional annual meal for international students, issue early warning and warning of viral pneumonia, issue disposable masks and other protective equipment, and remind students face-to-face to pay attention to epidemic prevention and control. Hubei Education Department put the life safety and health of students first, took measures to organize all parties to carry out prevention and control, and strive to curb the spread of the epidemic.
Wuhan University, Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan University of science and technology and other universities in Han Dynasty have issued early warning on the protection of viral pneumonia. Many universities require that students' dormitories are not allowed to stay in others, and visitors must leave within the specified time after registering in the gatehouse. In Han schools, it is clearly suggested that postgraduates and overseas students should not go out as much as possible for non necessary reasons, especially in places with large traffic.
As an important force of basic scientific research, all affiliated hospitals and ten clinical medical schools of Huazhong University of science and technology have invested in epidemic prevention and control. In addition, on January 21, 2020, Hubei Provincial Department of education also issued winter vacation safety tips to primary and secondary schools across the province to remind parents to do a good job in basic protection.
HOW TO PREVENT CORONAVIRUS INFECTIONS?
Beijing CDC suggested that we should strengthen personal protection, avoid contact with wild animals, and put an end to work and party with diseases. After traveling from Wuhan and other places, if respiratory tract infection symptoms such as fever and cough appear, the fever clinic of the hospital should be selected according to the condition, and the doctor should wear a mask to see a doctor, at the same time, the doctor should be informed of the contact history and travel history of similar patients or animals. The specific suggestions are as follows:
A、 Strengthen personal protection
1. Avoid going to crowded public places. Avoid contact with patients with fever and respiratory tract infection, and wear masks if necessary.
2. Wash hands frequently. Especially when hands are contaminated by respiratory secretions, after touching public facilities, after caring for patients with fever, respiratory infection, vomiting and diarrhea, after visiting hospitals, after handling contaminated objects and after contacting animals, animal feed or animal feces.
3. Don't spit everywhere. Cover your mouth and nose with tissues or elbows when sneezing or coughing.
4. Strengthen exercise, work and rest regularly, and keep indoor air circulation.
B、 Avoid contact with wild animals
1. Avoid contact with livestock, wild animals and their excreta and secretions, and avoid purchasing live birds and wild animals.
2. Avoid going to animal farms and slaughterhouses, live poultry markets or stalls, wildlife habitats or other places. When you have to go, you should protect yourself, especially those who are exposed.
3. Avoid eating wild animals. Do not eat sick animals and their products; purchase fresh frozen poultry from regular channels, fully cook when eating poultry, eggs and milk; when handling fresh products, separate raw and cooked appliances and wash them in time to avoid cross contamination.
C、 No sick work or party
If you have symptoms of respiratory tract infection such as fever and cough, rest at home, reduce going out and traveling. When the weather is good, the room should be ventilated. Please wear a mask when contacting others. Avoid sick work, classes and parties.
D、 Timely medical treatment
After traveling from Wuhan and other places, if respiratory tract infection symptoms such as fever and cough appear, the fever clinic of the hospital should be selected according to the condition, and the doctor should wear a mask to see a doctor, at the same time, the doctor should be informed of the contact history and travel history of similar patients or animals.
WHAT DO WE HAVE TO DO IF WE HAVE IT?
Viral pneumonia is common in winter and spring. It can spread or break out. The main clinical manifestations are fever, aching all over, dyspnea in a few parts and infiltration shadow of lung. Viral pneumonia is related to the virulence of the virus, the route of infection, the age of the host and the immune status. Influenza virus is the most common virus that causes viral pneumonia, others are parainfluenza virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, etc. The diagnosis depends on the etiological examination, including virus isolation, serological examination and detection of virus antigen and nucleic acid. The disease can be prevented and controlled. In terms of prevention, it can keep indoor air circulation, avoid public places with closed and non circulating air and places where people are concentrated, and wear masks when going out. Clinical treatment is mainly symptomatic, and bed rest is needed. If you have the above symptoms, especially the persistent fever, you should go to the medical institution in time.
HOW TO AVOID THE RISK OF THE INFECTION?
Novel coronavirus guidelines for protection of people at different risk levels
To guide the novel coronavirus infection prevention work at different risk groups, we will make this guide. This guide is applicable to ordinary family members, travel personnel, family isolation personnel and specific industry personnel.
1、 Ordinary family members
（1） Try to minimize going out. Reduce family visits and dinner parties, and try to rest at home. Reduce activities in densely populated public places, especially relatively closed places with poor air flow, such as public baths, hot springs, cinemas, Internet bars, KTV, shopping malls, stations, airports, docks and exhibition halls.
（2） Do a good job in personal protection and hand hygiene. The family shall provide thermometers, masks, household disinfectants and other articles. Masks that have not been exposed to suspected or confirmed patients and have good appearance, no peculiar smell or dirt can be placed in the ventilated and dry place of the room after returning home for the next use. The masks that need to be discarded shall be disposed according to the requirements of domestic waste classification. Keep hands clean at all times. After returning from public places, coughing and covering hands, and defecating before meals, wash hands with hand sanitizer or soap, or use hand sanitizer. When you are not sure if your hands are clean, avoid touching your mouth, nose and eyes with your hands. Cover your nose and mouth with elbow clothing when sneezing or coughing.
（3） Keep good living habits. The room is clean, open windows frequently, ventilate regularly and disinfect regularly. Balanced diet, balanced nutrition, moderate exercise and adequate rest. Do not spit anywhere. Wrap the mouth and nose secretions with paper towels and discard them in the covered dustbin.
（4） Take the initiative to do a good job of health monitoring for individuals and family members, and take the initiative to measure the body temperature when you feel hot. If you have children at home, you should touch their forehead sooner or later. If you have fever, you should measure their temperature.
（5） In case of fever, cough, pharyngeal pain, chest distress, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, muscle ache and other suspicious symptoms, timely visit the medical institution according to the condition.
2、 Travel personnel
（1） People who travel in daily life and work, when going out to public places such as supermarkets and restaurants and taking public transportation, shall wear masks to minimize close contact with others. When the risk of infection is low, such as being alone, driving alone or walking in the park alone, masks are not required.
（2） If you need to see a medical institution for suspicious symptoms, you should wear a mask. You can choose a medical surgical mask. Try to avoid taking subway, bus and other means of transportation, and avoid going to crowded places. When seeking medical treatment, we should take the initiative to inform the medical staff of the travel and living history of the epidemic areas and contact with others, and cooperate with the medical and health institutions to carry out relevant investigations.
（3） For long-distance travelers, it is necessary to know in advance whether the destination is an epidemic area. If you have to go to the epidemic area, you should be equipped with masks, portable hand sanitizer, thermometer and other necessary items in advance. On the way to travel, try to reduce the close contact with others. Wear kn95 and above particulate protection masks in densely populated public transportation places and vehicles. The respirator shall be replaced in time when it is deformed, wetted or soiled and the protective performance is reduced. Properly keep the information of public transport bills when going to popular areas for reference. When returning from the epidemic area, the residents' committee and villagers' committee of the community should register and conduct medical observation as soon as possible. The period of medical observation is 14 days after leaving the epidemic area. During the period of medical observation, monitor the body temperature, physical signs and other conditions, and try to live alone or in a well ventilated single room, so as to reduce the close contact with family members.
3、 Home quarantine personnel
(1) novel coronavirus infected cases of pneumonia were closely contacted and taken home quarantine for medical observation. The duration of medical observation was 14 days after the last unprotected contact with the case or the infected person. The isolation personnel at home should live independently, reduce the contact with the common residents as much as possible, clean and disinfect the medical observation place, and avoid cross infection. Do not go out during the observation period. If you have to go out, you can only go out after the approval of medical observation management personnel, and you should wear medical surgical masks to avoid going to crowded places.
（2） The home quarantine personnel shall take temperature measurement at least twice a day and refuse to visit. Keep close contact with family members as much as possible. Do not share with family members anything that may cause indirect contact infection, including toothbrush, cigarette, tableware, food, drink, towel, clothing and bedding.
（3） When others enter the living space of the isolation personnel, they shall wear kn95 / N95 and above particle protective masks in a standard way, and do not touch or adjust the masks during the period. Try to avoid direct contact with isolation personnel at home. In case of any direct contact, clean and disinfect in time.
4、 Industry specific people
（1） For the public transport department, taxi driver, service personnel in public places, armed police, traffic police, security personnel, media reporters, express delivery personnel and other industry personnel, due to the large number of daily contact personnel, there is a risk of infection, the unit should equip them with disposable medical masks or surgical masks or kn95 / N95 and above particle protective masks, so as to And hand disinfectant, disinfectant tissue, thermometer and other items, and do a good job in the daily cleaning and disinfection of the working environment. During the work, personal protection shall be done well, and masks shall be worn regularly. The respirator shall be replaced in time when it is deformed, wetted or soiled and the protective performance is reduced. Pay attention to hand hygiene, wash hands with hand sanitizer or soap, or use hand sanitizer. Take your temperature at least twice a day. Generally, it is not necessary to wear protective clothing, protective masks and other protective articles. In case of suspicious symptoms (such as fever, cough, pharyngeal pain, chest distress, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, muscle ache, etc.), stop working immediately and isolate at home or seek medical treatment according to the condition.
（2） It is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, disposable gloves, disposable medical protective clothing, medical protective masks or powered air supply filter respirators, protective screens or goggles, work shoes or rubber boots, waterproof boot covers, etc. for the staff in the isolation ward, the staff in the medical observation place and the transfer personnel of suspected and confirmed cases.
（3） For epidemiological investigators, when conducting close contact investigation, they should wear disposable work caps, medical surgical masks, work clothes and disposable gloves, and keep a distance of more than 1 meter from the respondents. When conducting the investigation of suspected and confirmed cases, it is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, disposable gloves, disposable medical protective clothing, kn95 / N95 and above particle protective masks or medical protective masks, protective screens or goggles, work shoes or rubber boots, waterproof boots, etc. for suspected and confirmed cases, it is also suggested to take telephone or video streaming.
（4） For specimen collection personnel and biosafety laboratory staff, it is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, double gloves, disposable medical protective clothing, kn95 / N95 and above particle protective masks or medical protective masks or powered air supply filter respirators, protective screens, work shoes or rubber boots, and waterproof boots. If necessary, wear waterproof apron or waterproof isolation clothing.
(five) for environmental cleaning and disinfection personnel and corpse disposal personnel, it is recommended to wear work clothes, disposable work caps, disposable gloves and long sleeve thickened rubber gloves, medical disposable protective clothing, KN95/N95 and above particle protective mask or medical protective mask, work shoes or rubber boots, waterproof boot covers, waterproof apron or waterproof isolation clothing, etc. When using the powered air supply filter respirator, the environmental cleaning and disinfection personnel shall select and match the dust and poison combination filter box or canister according to the type of disinfectant to protect the disinfectant and other chemicals.
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